Some of these personalities are particularly […], […] lijstje van buitenbijbels bewijs voor Bijbelse personen: vijftig namen met […]. However, as with many taboo topics, time has a way of changing things. Lawrence: “Moreover, the confirmation of the person’s existence in Bible-era inscriptions cannot at all be regarded as evidence that their deeds according to Scripture never occurred.”. As a former catechist, I praise God and swoon over articles that “prove” (?) Michael, I gave you the citation to the book about the United Monarchy only because you brought it up. the book of Zechariah makes one historical reference to him, Jehucal (= Jucal), official during Zedekiah’s reign, fl. 16. Cary. 103–104, which upgrades the strength of the identification from its original level in IBP, p. 235, responding to the difficulty expressed in Oded Lipschits, The Fall and Rise of Jerusalem: Judah under Babylonian Rule (Winona Lake, Ind. One must keep in mind that there were probably many people in Judah during that time named Hananiah/Hananyahu, and quite a few of them could have had a father named ‘Azariah/‘Azaryahu, or ‘Azzur for short. 50 People in the Bible Confirmed Archaeologically – Biblical Archaeology Society Once again science confirms the Bible! Learn the fascinating insights gained from artifacts and ruins, like the Pool of Siloam in Jerusalem, where the Gospel of John says Jesus miraculously restored the sight of the blind man, and the Tel Dan inscription—the first historical evidence of King David outside the Bible. Rezin (= Raḥianu), king, r. mid-8th century to 732, 2 Kings 15:37, etc., in the inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III, king of Assyria (in these inscriptions, Raging Torrent records frequent mention of Rezin in  pp. The fact that these books (scrolls) were eventually collected and published “side by side” in the same volume does not mean that they should not count as several ancient witnesses to the life of Josiah: 3 from Chris: [Then] it dried out as it was said: He reproaches the sea and makes it dry; and all the rivers makes desolate (Nahum 1:4). Thus, the fact that the inscription was written approximately 130 years after David died does refute this identification. The palace overseer had great authority and knowledge of the inner workings of government at the highest level, sometimes serving as vice-regent for the king; see S. H. Hooke, “A Scarab and Sealing From Tell Duweir,” Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement 67 (1935): pp. In lines 4–5, it calls him “Bar-hadad, son of Hazael, the king of Aram” (IBP, p. 240; “Sixteen,” p. 44; Raging Torrent, p. 38; ANET, p. 655: COS, vol. Were these overlooked on purpose or were you not aware of them? In Shalmaneser III’s Black Obelisk, current scholarship regards the notation over relief B, depicting payment of tribute from Israel, as referring to “Jehu, son of Omri” (Raging Torrent, p. 23; RIMA 3, p. 149, A.0. 1–18. 2: Archival Documents from the Biblical World (Boston: Brill, 2000). But then the “three shekels” ostracon turned out to be a forgery. In reply to response no. & Jeremiah 39:9, etc., in a Babylonian cuneiform inscription known as Nebuchadnezzar II’s Prism (column 3, line 36 of prism EŞ 7834, in the Istanbul Archaeological Museum). Thus I have not ignored these inscriptions. Examples include many of Israel’s and Judah’s kings such as […], […]… […]. was fought in 1836, a little over 170 years ago. (“Shalman” in Hosea 10:14 is likely a historical allusion, but modern lack of information makes it difficult to assign it to a particular historical situation or ruler, Assyrian or otherwise. But avoid …. It neither claims that supernatural events occurred nor disputes such claims. Not a BAS Library member yet? 2, pp. Searching for Evidence Beyond the Bible,”, “New Testament Political Figures: The Evidence”, “Herod the Great and the Herodian Family Tree”. On Tacitus, see See CIIP, vol. Other reasons for not making the identification between the Jezebel of the seal and Jezebel, Queen of Israel, appear in Christopher A. Rollston, “Rollston responds to Shanks,” available free online at . See the published dissertation, L. J. Mykytiuk, Identifying Biblical Persons in Northwest Semitic Inscriptions of 1200–539 B.C.E. Although personally I believe that he does, and is present out there somewhere among all of the Michael F.s in the world, I can neither prove nor disprove it with the evidence available to me. 415, 416–417, respectively). The origin and meaning of "Shaddai" are obscure, and a variety of hypotheses have been put forward. 3 and 4 are reversed); “Sixteen,” pp. 12. I understand people make a lot of weak textual assumptions based on what they want to believe, but all I ask is there one other stone that shows he existed? On this point I trust the Egyptologists, and prominent among them is Kenneth A. Further, web address can serve as a link to this page so that others may access it, just as you have done. If two inscriptions (and indeed a third from Egypt) are not sufficient, I find no particular need to discount the entirely of the biblical record of David. 1 is a ‘Must see!’ The film starts off with ‘Three Big Ideas,’ which are given as: 1) Most of the evil in this world is highly coordinated, and is fulfilling Biblical prophecy to the letter. I thought there was evidence for King Josiah. Now I know that these people were real and some were in the linage that led to the appearance of a Jew named Jesus who appeared in the first century C.E. An upcoming scholarly challenge is the identification of Sennacherib’s successor, Esarhaddon, as a more likely assassin in Andrew Knapp’s paper, “The Murderer of Sennacherib, Yet Again,” to be read in a February 2014 Midwest regional conference in Bourbonnais, Ill. (SBL/AOS/ASOR). 48–49 n. 34). Also, among the burial places inside that same tomb complex, lying broken into fragments was an inscribed, square stone plate that had been used to seal a burial. ABC  A. Kirk Grayson, Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles (Winona Lake, Ind. [line 5] Menahem of Samaria.”  (ITP, pp. 4. 36. 150–156; WSS, p. 52 no. 66–67). Consequently, to get rid of the report, Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace. See ANET, pp. At Kurkh, a monolith by Shalmaneser III states that at the battle of Qarqar (853 B.C.E. Actually, Carol, the article itself, in the BAR magazine, is much more reader-friendly, fun, and visually interesting than the condensed information in the table and endnotes to the identifications that appear above. Otherwise, check this out) […]. […] Fifty Bible People Confirmed By Recent Archaeology, Lawrence Mykytiuk. Continuing the reply to Nancy (comment 30 above): Now to answer a closely related question that you did not ask. 1054, where the name, spelled YTM, is translated Yatom, which means “orphan.” (For readers: a complete citation of this book is given above on this page, under the section heading “Symbols and Abbreviations, in the last entry: WSS.) Ben-hadad, son of Hadadezer, r. or served as co-regent 844/842, 2 Kings 6:24, etc. […] 50 People in the Bible Confirmed Archaeologically – Bible History Daily […], […] this quite well. There, referring to the battle of Qarqar (853 B.C.E. If an inscription is known to be authentic—that is, excavated, not sold on the antiquities market—and if it happens to contain enough data in the inscribed piece and in its immediate surroundings in the excavation, then one might be able make a clear, strong identification of someone who is mentioned in the Bible. The song Dayeinu celebrates the various miracles God performed while liberating the Israelites from Egyptian servitude. 29 and 30, and in “Sixteen,” p. 53. (1 Kings 16:31). 165). 66–70,  with the administrative contexts described in Eran Arie, Yuval Goren, and Inbal Samet, “Indelible Impression: Petrographic Analysis of Judahite Bullae,” in Israel Finkelstein and Nadav Na’aman, eds., The Fire Signals of Lachish: Studies in the Archaeology and History of Israel in the Late Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Persian Period in Honor of David Ussishkin (Winona Lake, Ind. late 13th century (some scholars prefer late 15th century), Numbers 22:5, etc., in a wall inscription on plaster dated to 700 B.C.E. : Eisenbrauns, 1987), pp. Purdue University. According to some, the “scholarly consensus” on the dating of Daniel is that the book of Daniel was written in the 2nd century B.C. Shishak is a thoroughly Hebrew rendering of the name of the Egyptian pharaoh, Shoshenq I. This bowl is now in the Brooklyn Museum. within 597–586, Jeremiah 37:3; 38:1, Eilat Mazar, “Did I Find King David’s Palace?”, Nadav Na’aman, “The Interchange between Bible and Archaeology: The Case of David’s Palace and the Millo,”, 33. The same argument supports the authenticity of the Mesha Inscription, in which one can confidently identify the biblical Omri, king of the northern kingdom of Israel, and the biblical aMesha, king of Moab. Also, on the Kurba’il Statue, lines 29–30 refer to “Jehu, son of Omri” (RIMA 3, p. 60, A.0.102.12, lines 29–30). 23. It deals with archaeological evidence for real people mentioned in the _Hebrew_ Bible, which Christians call the Old Testament. 426–430; P&B, pp. ),” in CAH, vol. Thus the Scriptures that I covered give no historical mention of Jesus, and Jesus is not included in the list, which, you may notice, ends at about 400 B.C.E. Nebo-sarsekim, chief official of Nebuchadnezzar II, fl. III, part II, pp. It is archaeology that directly or indirectly affects how one understands Israel and the early Christian community, and by extension Scripture. Pekah, king, r. etc. A month or so ago I posted a thorough article in the Early Writings biblical history and criticism forum showing that all the matches between Shishak and Shoshenq are weak. Three other people, all in the book of Genesis, are not clearly identifiable in any inscription of known authenticity: Chedor-la’omer, Jacob, and Joseph. 51. The article, as well as the table and notes above, treat just a thin slice of what can be documented from inscriptions of Bible times. This topic is certainly worth exploring, and perhaps someday, God willing, I may be granted the time and ability to do so. And I suspect that the Balaam and Beor of the inscription might well be the same as those in Numbers chapters 22 through 24 But there are some difficulties that make the identification unclear: 1. Inscriptions from about 630 to 586 B.C.E. indicates greater likelihood that the phrase “the house of David” does accurately include the name of the actual founder of the single dynasty of the southern kingdom of Judah, in fact a much greater likelihood than that Judahite kings simply adopted an eponymous hero as their dynastic founder. The inscription names the various kings who fought in the battle, and even when his name and kingdom are written according to an Assyrian accent, it is not hard to figure out who they meant. Accordingly, {when} goes to {his eternal home} (Ecclesiastes 12:5), there is an angel {appointed} in the garden of Eden who picks up every son of which is circumcised and brings him {there}. David, king, r. ca. As in my reply to Greg (see above), I can only say that my interests have thus far led me to study and write concerning persons in the Hebrew Bible. For instance, the Baal of Peor (Baal-peor), who was worshiped by Moabites and Midianites, took his name from Mount Peor. . More discoveries only add to it. Why has evidence of Jesus not been found yet? Well and good, but I fail to see any true parallel between Hellēn and David. Thus far, I believe, we can agree. On this one, see IBP, pp. My guess - and it is just a guess - is that the Linux subsystem keeps track of its own files and never looks to see if any others have been added. I agree that there is a need, or certainly good use, for another list containing biblical names which are parallel to those found in cognate languages or other populations in the ancient Near East. Perhaps there has not been enough searching in the right locations, etc., but ultimately, they simply have not been found. He was a Christian and a companion of the apostle Paul whom Paul mentioned in the New Testament, Romans 16:23 to be exact. For the sake of convenience in referring to the text, chapter and verse numbers were added to the biblical text many centuries after the Bible was written. ca. By demonstrating how these indicators are used in dating she initiates the reader into the many details of paleography which Dr. Yardeni herself takes into account when she is describing and dating a script or a document. Yahveh blowing the waters of the flood in Genesis 8:1 to make place for the new creation or dividing the Sea of Reeds in Exodus 14–15 to let the Hebrews walk to the other side and start a new national existence – all of these may be read as the retellings of the initial cosmogonic conflict. The evidence from outside the New Testament for the existence of Jesus of Nazareth is briefly mentioned above in posts 8, 9, 20, 30, and 38. 68–69, Pl. that the doubling of the medial ‘d ’ is first documented only in the Neo-Assyrian period. Thank you for a great update to a well-documented and thought out series of articles. On the possibility of Ben-hadad, son of Hazael, being the “Mari” in Assyrian inscriptions, see Raging Torrent, pp. The folk tradition might be based on historical persons and events, but it is not necessarily historical. 12–13 (the section titled “The Database: Judahite Bullae from Controlled Excavations”) and pp. _Medieval Outlaws : Ten Tales in Modern English_ (1998), It is true that many people understand it to mean “Common Era.” But many others interpret it as “Christian Era.” The abbreviation is actually ambiguous, so I suggest that you interpret it in whichever way you prefer. 407–411, esp. 3. It does not reveal a historical time period for Balaam and Beor. [Reference > Arthur Weigall, ‘A History of the Pharaohs’ (New York, E.P. But nineteenth-century inscriptions that turn out to have correct letter shapes that are all appropriate for the same century or part of a century are an exception. Even for me (Chris), this is a bit on the nerdy side. This date is indicated especially by the Hebrew letter nun (n) and—though the photographs are not completely clear, possibly by the Hebrew letter he’ (h), as well. 2, pp. (If one may elucidate the vividness of social memory after 70 to 170 years among the ancient Hebrews by parallels in U.S. history, World War II ended 70 years ago, and the Battle of the Alamo, complete with its heroes William Travis, James Bowie, Davy Crockett, et al. 1 (Jerusalem: Shoham Academic Research and Publication, c2015). 2, p. 188, vol. 14. (Of course, any good, recent Bible dictionary or Bible encyclopedia will mention such Bible-era documentation that is found outside of the Bible and cite the most relevant modern publications.) 139–146, 228). # 28 Azariah, high priest during Josiah’s reign within 640/639–609 is mentioned in 1 Chronicles 6:13 and 14 in Christian Bibles, which have the same content as 5:39 and 40 in Hebrew Bibles and in Jewish translations of the Hebrew Bible unto English. […] With the three most recent matches, Dr. Lawrence Mykytiuk an associate professor of library science who specializes in history and Jewish studies at Purdue University, has confirmed a total of 53 persons in the Bible from the Old Testament. 171–174; some publications listed in WSS, p. 172 no. The following is a quote from its web page at (the ellipses, three or four dots in a row, indicate something was omitted from the quote): “Cyrus Cylinder (…) He thereupon inscribed the name upon a {piece of clay}, cast (Aram. (Interestingly, in that verse in 2 Chronicles, there is no reference to any image of the LORD that could be returned to that temple. Shishak (= Shoshenq I): RIMA  a series of books: The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia: Assyrian Periods. Now that we have the authenticity and the Jewish setting of the inscription, we can count the identifying marks of an individual to see how strong a case there is for the Ma‘azyahu of the Bible and the Ma‘aziah being the same person: 1) Ma‘azyahu and Ma‘aziah are simply spelling variants of the very same name. Shelemiah, father of Jehucal the official, late 7th century, Jeremiah 37:3; 38:1 and 32. Because the letter shapes could not have been correctly forged, yet they turned out to be correct, it is safe to presume that this stone seal is genuine, even though its origin (provenance) is unknown. So it is much better to discuss the evidence, as you touch on in your post. As you probably know, other persons mentioned in the New Testament are also documented in inscriptions of their times, such as Pontius Pilate, who is certainly referred to in an inscription discovered at the seaport city of Caesarea. The following statement from my comment 14 expresses my view regarding the identifications I have written about, with which you are entirely free to take a completely different position: “3. 6. Ester&imageid=9620&box=&shownew= In my dissertation, I made it clear that identification of a biblical person in an inscription from the biblical period does not prove the historicity of whole biblical narrative about the person. 10. written accounts from 1st and 2nd century AD as archaeological evidence of Jesus’ existence? The British Museum offers something like “the gold standard” in its description of the Cyrus Cylinder. See OROT, pp. Thus the inscribed ossuary is demonstrably authentic, and it suits the Jewish setting of the priestly descendants of Ma‘aziah in the Second Temple period. In response to comment 42 by Michael F.: 95‒108, 265‒277, and for the date, pp. I just don’t consider them authentic unless their authenticity, hence their reliability, can be demonstrated. For Sennacherib’s account of his first campaign, which was against Merodach-baladan II, see COS, vol. One tablet calls Jehoiachin “king” (Text Babylon 28122, obverse, line 29; ANET, p. 308). 189–199, esp. . 700 B.C.E., several centuries after the period in which the Bible places Balaam. 111, 174, 178–179, 182–183. 13. Cyrus II (=Cyrus the great), king, r. 559–530, 2 Chronicles 36:22, etc., in various inscriptions (including his own), for which and on which see ANEHST, pp. within 597–586, Jeremiah 38:1. Sennacherib, king, r. 704–681, 2 Kings 18:13, etc. And what about Hiram the Phoenician king who is well known from his inscription? with supplement; Warminster, England: Aris & Phillips, 1986), pp. 6–7; William J. Dumbrell, “The Tell el-Maskhuta Bowls and the ‘Kingdom’ of Qedar in the Persian Period,” BASOR 203 (October 1971): pp. See IBP, p. 238 n. 90; cf. 21. You’re just repeating what you stated previously. Sanballat “I”, governor of Samaria under Persian rule, ca. 7. Try starting with a few favorites. [19] It seems however, that they should rather be approached in their immediate context and in relation to another parallel narrative which comes in BT Sukkah 53 a–b and reads: When David dug the Pits, the {watery chasm} arose and threatened to submerge the world. I have used 2 unprovenanced seals for the identification of the biblical Uzziah, king of Judah. 69, 70) and “Jerusalem, his royal city” (line 29; ibid., p. 33). I did an internet search on Michael F., and could come up with nothing definitive and concrete there. (Compare the Russian vowel o, normally pronounced “aw”: but written o.) Azariah, high priest during Josiah’s reign, within 640/639–609, 1 Chronicles 5:39, etc., in the City of David bulla of Azariah, son of Hilkiah (WSS, p. 224 no. As for myths of the Bronze Age or any other previous time, some scholars simply call them “good dreams.” On Tirhakah as prince, see OROT, p. 24. . According to 2 Samuel 5:5, for his first seven years and six months as a monarch, he ruled only the southern kingdom of Judah. He remains a candidate. is nothing more than a way of indicating an era. The vertical stroke of the third letter converges, for want of space, with the border line of the seal. So how did “Shoshenq” in Egyptian become “Shishak” in Hebrew? 2nd try in response to comment 20 by Gene R.: Wow, thank you, Gene, for mentioning so many evidences! Therefore, on this evidence it is safe to presume that this stone seal is genuine, even though its origin (provenance) is unknown. 38–39 n. 11). Many discoveries are tantalizing, in that some of the details that they offer really do coincide with details in Scripture, but we wish more details were available. What I was saying is that the inclusion of a genuine historical character in a folkloric narrative does not prove that all the folkloric narrative’s events/characters were true. Although it is not unusual for initial reports to be corrected as the facts become clearer, this news is certainly worth our attention as more information, including a DNA analysis, eventually becomes available. Read “Did Jesus Exist? The translation team behind the New Jerusalem Bible (N.J.B.) (d) I would not be inclined to date the script to the 9th century. But it will take a lot of time to cover all 50 identifications. There is manuscript evidence for the existence of Jesus of Nazareth in the ancient writings of the two Roman historians who are arguably the best that Rome ever produced: Tacitus and Suetonius. Note: I and J are the same letter in Latin. (CIIP, Part 1, p.179, no. Jaazaniah (= Jezaniah), fl. One must question the sources of these tales, which are in fact cosmic myths. See Isaac Rabinowitz, “Aramaic Inscriptions of the Fifth Century B.C.E. Can easily be interpreted in biblical meaning of 425 spot Hanna M. Cotton et al., eds., doubling... 216 ; “ Sixteen, ” pp Romans 16:23 to be cautious evaluating! Discoveries brings together the exciting worlds of Archaeology and the early first Millennium BC, II 858–745. Lisa ( comment 25 above ): pp by Purdue University, in the case for not... Ve arrived! simmagir ), on the inscription is in my published dissertation a misidentification of his questionable! Noun containing the dagesh is the only portion of Scripture, vol and C.E., for why would make. 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